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Textile Industries Research Division
The Textile Industries Research Division (TIRD) is one of the most important divisions of the National Research Centre (NRC). It deals with science and technology of textile Industry in general. Its activity began in the year 1959, 3years after launching the NRC, when a unit of dyes and dyeing was established, followed by another unit for textile chemistry in 1961. In 1981 the TIRD was developed to include four laboratories (named later in 1988 as departments), namely:
- Spinning and Weaving Engineering Department.
- Proteinic and Man-made fibres Department.
- Preparation and Finishing of Cellulosic Fibers Department.
- Dyeing, Printing and Textile Auxiliaries Department.
Aiming to complete our mission, the TIRD established its fifth department in 2004; namely the Clothing and Knitting Industrial Research Department.
The division has 130 staff members (including professors, assistant professors and researchers), in addition to 46 assistants (B. Sc. and M. Sc.). Some of the members of research staff have been awarded Nile prizes, State and NRC prizes for appreciation, and State and NRC for encouragement prizes as well as the Degree of D. Sc.
General Field of the Division:
Science and Technology of Textile Industry
Subfields of the Division:
- Textile fibres (production, development, proper uses of fiber blends)
- Spun and non-woven fabrics
- Sizes and sizing
- Technical textiles
- Pretreatment of textiles
- Dyes and dyeing
- Printing and thickeners
- Readymade garments
- Detergent and detergency
- Textile care and preservation
- Preparation of auxiliaries
- Waste recycling
Services provided by the TIRD:
- Industrial and environmental audits
- Testing and analysis of fibres, textile products, auxiliaries, … etc (supportive services)
- On-site trouble shooting,
- Research and development for creating local technologies,
- Technical and scientific consultation
- Consultations about evaluating, transferring, embracing and dwelling of technology
- Qualification of textile establishments for eco-labelling
- Quality control
- Pollution control in textile industries
- Recycling of liquid and solid wastes
- Feasibility studies
Work strategy of the division is based on four components:
The division represents a scientific center of excellence through undertaking basic and applied researches of high quality and converting their results into technologies for sustainable development of Egypt.
To develop the Egyptian textile industry in order to make textile products more competitive in the global market .
- a)To achieve our mission, through producing and building of specialized personel as well as collaboration with the industrial units for provision of technical, scientific and consultative advices, b) To offer specific training programs,c) To accomplish research and development work, d)To share in technology transfer, and e)To establish new technologies . In addition, the division has a service unit of special status which enables chemical, physical and mechanical assessment of samples received from different textile disciplines.
End users include not only traditional textile sectors involved in spinning ,weaving ,tricot, bleaching ,dyeing , printing , and finishing industries and auxiliaries but also others represented by military , food , dyes and pigments , packaging and medicine industries .In addition , environment protection can also be regarded as end user for the division .
Current researches being carried out in the five departments of the division, are variant and integrated depending on their nature, application and spanning. There are two kinds of strategy:
- a short term strategy, aiming at developing the textile industry through building up staff, training industrial technicians, offering scientific and technological consultations to solve daily and trouble - shooting problems, and technology transfer, specially from abroad, and
- a long-term strategy aiming at making use of the results of advanced sciences, such as genetic engineering, biotechnology, computer sciences, electronics, information and new materials, in modernization of production processes of the textile industry.
In the following sections, the current activities of the five departments of the TIRD, in some details, are presented.
Spinning and Weaving Engineering Department (SWED)
The SWED is one of the closely related departments of the TIRD to the industrial sector, by virtue of its excellent infrastructure and human skills.
- Conducting research in the fields of spinning, and weaving, as wqell as in technical textiles and their applications in the medical, and engineering sectors,
- Designing and developing specialty smart textiles and textile composites for special applications e.g. civil engineering, military, medical, agriculture……etc.
- Design and development of filters used to reduce air pollution in cement plants
- Studies on textile waste reduction, waste management and recycling.
- Enhancing testing capabilities for the purpose of research, process control, and development product specification and selection of proper raw materials
- Technology transfer and consultation for the production sector,
- Implementation of training programs for specialists and those interested in the spinning and weaving industries.
- Analysis and testing of physical and mechanical properties of filaments, yarns, and fabrics
Preparation and Finishing of Cellulosic Fibres Department (PFCFD)
The PFCFD acquires great importance because it concerns with S & T of cotton fibres for the sake of textile products made up of Egyptian cotton which constitutes a lot of the our national economy. This department deals with chemistry and technology of bast fibres; Viz. flax and jute. The PFCFD has outstanding staff which is not found in the analogous research institutions as well as universities in Egypt.
- Wet processing of cellulosic and preparatory processing of cellulose containing textiles with special reference to sizing, desizing , scouring , bleaching , mercerization and bio-preparation.
- Finishing of cellulose containing textiles, including :-
- soft, mechanical and heat finishing
- easy care and durable press finishing
- bio finishing
- special finishing ( e.g.flame retardancy, water/ oil repellency, anti rot anti bacterial , soil resitance and soil release ).
- Preparation of new sizes and development of sizing operations of cellulose containing yarns .
- Modifications of polysaccharides (e.g. starch and cellulose derivatives), in the field of the department for utilization in different applications in the textile industry .
- Synthesis and characterization of new textile auxiliaries.
- Evaluation of textile products and auxiliaries.
- Industrial audits on textile enterprises in order to diagonise the situation and propose feasible solutions.
- Cleaner technology for pollution prevention in textile enterprises .
- Pollution reduction via recycling and / or treatment of wastewater.
- Offering consultancy, carrying out different analysis and testing as well as organizing training courses.
Proteinic and Man–Made Fibers Department (PMFD)
The PMFD concerns with conduction applied researches in the field of Chemistry and Technology of Proteinic and Man-made Fibres and their blend. This department contains also outstanding calibers deals with chemistry and technology of insoluble proteins such as keratin.
- Different modifications of protein , regenerated and man – made fibers to acquire desirable properties such as increased moisture regain , dyeability at low temperature, reduced static charge and producing active centres having antimicrobial effects.
- Development of the industrial processes for the production of polyester , polyamide and polypropylene fibres .
- New methods to graft polyamide fibres during production .
- Synthesis of novel cationic surfactants as activators for the finishing of polyester fabrics.
- Application of clean technologies for wet treatments of wool fabrics to reduce felting , shrinkage , dimensional stability of fabrics and moth proofing resistance of wool.
- Application of carbon fibres in different fields .
- Control, technical assistance and consultancy for finishing and production of protein and man – made fibres and their blends .
- Research studies to minimize water and energy consumptions during wet processing of the protein and man – made fibres in plants.
- Care and preservation of textile garments and furniture made of protein and man – made fabrics .
- Control and analysis of the raw materials and products of the textile plants.
- Qualitative and quantitative determination of protein & man-made fibers and their blends .
- Analysis of moth – proofed wool textiles .
- Comparison and evaluation of the whiteness of the different whitening agents used in this process and analysis of derergents formulations components .
- Specialized training courses.
Dyeing, Printing and Auxiliaries Department (DPAD)
DPAD is the largest department in the TIRD regarding the number of research staff. Research at the PDAP is conducted through two main axes; namely dyeing and printing. It has a number. Preparation and characterization of textile auxiliaries are also one of the major research interests in the DPAD.
- The use of environmentally friendly materials and chemicals in the field of dyeing and printing of textile in order to preserve the environment.
- The use of "new technology" in the field of dyeing and printing of textile eg: (ultrasonic waves-microwave -plasma- ink jet printing-transfer printing … etc.)
- Extraction and use of natural dyes in dyeing and printing of textile.
- Preparation and production -from local materials- of "environmentally friendly" thickeners-suitable for printing of textiles as well as other purposes.
- Development of dyeing properties of some dyestuff.
- Treatment of fabrics in order to enable them to acquire new properties as well as increase their affinity to printing and dyeing.
- Pollution reduction in textile effluents.
- Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of textile auxiliaries.
- Offering consultancy, analysis and testing as well as organizing training courses.
Clothing& Knitting Industrial Research Department (CKIRD)
CKIRD activities of this department comprise the following:
- Conducting applied research and projects for developing of apparel & knitting industries.
- Building Staffs
- Sharing in technology transfer.
- Bridging the knowledge and technological gaps in apparel & fashion de-sign fields.
- Offering consultancy, analysis and testing as well as organizing specific training programmes.
- Smart garments.
- Using CAD & CAM system in garment industry.
- Medical applications of knitted fabrics
Scientific Achievement and Technological Development:
Research output of the division is characterized by applied nature. They activities include chemical and fine structure of textile fibres (cotton, flax, jute, viscose, wool, silk, polyester and polyamide) as well as their chemical modifications, pretreatment, dyeing, printing and finishing. Research output also includes chemistry and modifications of starch, cellulose derivatives, chitin and chitosan, in order to upgrade the quality of these materials and find new applications for them. Various composites, based on vinyl monomers and some substrates (e-g starch, starch derivatives, cellulose derivatives and chitosan) were also prepared. The division played an important role in planning and implementing many projects, through contracting with the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, as well as local companies and foreign authorities. The projects included:
- Development of textile production processes for enhancement of competitive edge.
- Development of textile pretreatment and finishing processes
- Developing of sizes and sizing operation.
- Blending of polyester with natural fibres.
- Textile cleaner production.
- Production of non-benzidine dyestuffs.
- Production of high viscous materials.
- Production, development and application of filters.
- Developing of polyester fibres to cope with recent trends. The division has also participated in most studies concerning the future of textile industry in Egypt.